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Combustion Systems

The standard internal combustion engine found in most automobiles operates on the same system developed in the 1800s. Taking lessons learned from outside the automotive industry, Nostrum has created an advanced system to help unlock the true potential of an engine, the Nostrum CycleTM and Mulye CycleTM. These add two distinct applications of water to the normal combustion cycle to boost performance and efficiency through “dilute combustion systems.” The advanced science powering the Nostrum Kinetic Direct Injector (K-DITM) and Kinetic Intake Track Injector (K-ITITM) makes this direct water injection possible.

Nostrum dilute combustion systems are uniquely positioned to provide superior solutions for future OEM and current aftermarket engines. Applications of the Nostrum CycleTM and Mulye CycleTM dilute combustion systems can enable the next generation of high brake mean-effective pressure (BMEP) engines to achieve unprecedented levels of efficiency. These revolutionary new approaches work with spark ignition gasoline and natural gas engines, as well as compression ignition diesel and gasoline engines.

Nostrum CycleTM / Mulye CycleTM (The Internal Combustion Cycle + Water)

  • Water is injected directly into the combustion chambers, via K-DITM technology, to manage peak temperatures and provide knock mitigation, allowing the engine to operate at Mean Best Torque (MBT) ignition timing at all loads.
  • In alternate applications for aftermarket integration and for first-step implementation, water is injected into the intake track, via K-ITITM technology, to manage peak combustion temperatures and provide knock mitigation for high combustion pressure applications (boosted and/or high compression ratio)
  • Enabling higher combustion pressures with the Nostrum CycleTM and Mulye CycleTM directly increases the thermodynamic efficiency of the combustion cycle, while mitigating potential harmful emissions such as NOx and PM levels for diesel engines.
  • The Mulye CycleTM evolves the water-infused Nostrum CycleTM to lean-burn conditions, mitigating in-cylinder nitrous oxides to substantially improve internal engine cooling, enabling lean-burn for real world commercial applications.
  • Correct application of the Mulye CycleTM makes it possible to eliminate the external cooling loop by providing complete internal temperature control and hardware thermal protection.

Results of the Nostrum CycleTM / Mulye CycleTM

  • On a heavy duty commercial, natural gas engine, such as an electrical generator used in stationary power: 15 percent improvement in engine efficiency.

  • On a regular 2.4L gasoline engine, such as a family sedan: 220 g/kWh (grams per kilowatt-hour) minimum brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) providing 4.5 percent improvement in efficiency and a 70 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (pollutants) at high BMEP (brake mean effective pressure) and engine speed.

  • On a 1.9L TDI diesel engine, such as a European sedan: 95 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (grams per kilowatt-hour), 33 percent reduction in particulates and 8 percent improvement in efficiency in optimized water injection (Water %) and exhaust gas recirculation ratios (EGR %)


Kinetic Injectors (K-DITM / K-ITITM)

  • Proprietary kinetic particle break-up mechanism with patented nozzles designed to meet the extreme challenges of water injection.
  • Advanced injectors deliver significantly reduced liquid lengths and superior vaporization rates, and enable application specific spray targeting to meet the needs of each engine’s combustion system.
  • Various flow rates and spray patterns available.

Engineering Services:

The Nostrum team of engineers offers a variety of services. Our dedicated and effective engineering team’s capabilities include:

  • Solidworks CAD
  • Solidworks FLOW
  • Converge CFD
  • GT-Power
  • Injector spray imaging and flow testing (3 bar to 350 bar)
  • Single cylinder testing
  • Multi-cylinder testing
  • Vehicle integration
  • Custom applications of K-DITM and/or K-ITITM for performance (race teams) and efficiency (fleet operations)
  • Special projects for OEM and Tier 1 advanced programs including combustion system integration, water injection and fuel injection
  • Specific engineering services for a wide range of opportunities including:
    • Small batch DI or PFI injectors for research
    • Water injectors (K-DITM or K-ITITM) for advanced projects
    • New engine combustion systems
    • Aftermarket efficiency and emissions kits
    • Academic and regulatory projects (DOE and EPA projects – Federal state research projects)
    • Strategic technology partnerships